A member of the quartz group of minerals, this gem is mainly yellow in color due to the presence of iron. There are citrines that range from pale yellow to orange through golden, amber and brown. Its appearance is cloudy or smoky. It is a rare stone, although smoky quartz and amethyst turn citrine color when treated with heat but they lack its characteristic appearance.
It has sometimes been called the "merchant's stone" or "success stone" as it is believed to attract abundance.
Its name would come from Latin "Citrus" or French "Citron", which means lemon and refers to the lemon yellow color. Its golden yellow variant was highly prized in Ancient Greece for its color similar to the precious metal.
Legend has it that there were citrines entangled in the roots of trees in Bolivia during the Spanish invasion. The Ayoreo Indians of the el Chaco region are said to have traded them with the Spanish for food.
At the time of the wars between English and Scottish clans, the latter wore brooches that were amulets of protection with citrines during combat.
It was often confused with sapphires and yellow topaz until the 16th century when it was given its name. It was used by Art Nouveau artists such as René Lalique in the creation of necklaces, tiaras, and other pieces of jewelry.
Linked to the sun because of its color, it is associated with heat and transformative energy. It stimulates creativity and inspiration, which is why it is recommended for artists. Besides, it influences good interpersonal relationships and the mood.
Worn close to the heart, citrine opens the being to the certainty of the abundance of the universe. Magnet of positive vibrations, it is said to generate strength and facilitate clairvoyance. It is helpful to those seeking answers and is beneficial in meditation.
On the physical level it is believed to act on the digestive system and to fortify the body while removing anxiety and nerves. It has an effect on 3 chakras, the root, the heart and the throat. It strengthens the immune system while bringing tranquility, stability and peace of mind.
Citrine can be bicolor. Ametrine is a mineral that combines the intense violet color of amethyst and the fresh tones of yellow citrine. It is also called "Bolivianite" since many ametrines come from Bolivia.
Another variant is the mandarin citrine with its red-orange or orange-brown colors and hues and the Madeira citrine with its red reflections that recall the tones of the wine from the Portuguese island.
The largest producer worldwide is Brazil. Several deposits are also registered in the United States, Madagascar, Burma (Myanmar), Bolivia, Scotland and Russia.