Obsidian is a type of igneous or magmatic rock that belongs to the mineral group of silicates.
It is a natural glass that occurs when lava from a volcanic eruption cools very quickly from contact with air or water. Because it does not fully crystallize it is often considered a mineraloid rather than a mineral.
Its formation occurs with inclusions or impurities of minerals such as iron, magnesium, iron oxide and cristobalite.
These give gems with patterns and veining of colors ranging from black, dark to light green, reddish and white.
Since prehistoric times obsidian has been used to make cutting and drilling tools. Being particularly hard and at the same time brittle, when fractured very sharp edges are obtained. For this reason, it was valued in the Stone Age like flint and was used to create arrow and spear points.
For the cultures of Mesoamerica it became a very important element. The Mayans and Aztecs, for example, made tools and ornaments with obsidian.
They also made weapons such as hardwood swords embedded with obsidian blades. The Aztecs called this weapon Macuahuitl.
Obsidian mirrors were carved for their priests, which they used to conjure visions and make prophecies. They linked the gem with the deity Tezcatlipoca, god of both providence and darkness but also of witchcraft, jaguars and the invisible.
Master gem when it comes to the consciousness, it represents a stabilizing bridge between emotions and the mind.
Acting as a mirror, it reflects our true self while also revealing its best hidden facets to accept and sublimate them in order to expand the consciousness.
Virtues of protection are attributed to it since it is believed that it absorbs and disperses negative energies as well as purifying the aura.
On a physical level it is believed to influence digestion, blood pressure and the heart. It would be able to soothe the muscles and speed up their recovery as well as induce calm in order to relax.
We can find obsidian deposits where there were volcanic eruptions in which the lava solidifies acquiring a composition similar to that of granite, called rhyolitic type.
Some countries where we can find it are Armenia, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, United States, Argentina, Colombia, Chile, Mexico, Peru, Greece, Turkey, Kenya, Iceland, Italy and Japan.
There are variants such as mahogany obsidian with its shades of crimson red and black, "snowflake" obsidian with white cristobalite inclusions, and fire obsidian with its iridescent, rainbow-like sheen.